Hard as Flint and in America.
We are confident that we have determined how Early Americans used a flint burin to inscribe the characters and images onto the surface of Stone Number 32 from the John White Collection.
The engravings on Stone 32 have clear connections to the ancient Phoenician alphabet. We are fortunate that Brian Nettles has translated that stone meaningfully. Click here to see the link.
The engravings of Stone 32 are cut in blue limestone. We have access to the location where we will get samples of blue limestone for use in further investigations.
Limestone is a relatively soft stone, rated between a 3 and 4 on the Mohs hardness scale, similar to marble. After today’s tests, we can claim that flint burin tools were used to engrave Phoenician letters in limestone in America thousands of years ago. Limestone has a hardness of 7 on the Mohs scale. That differential in hardness makes it possible for the flint tool to cut into the limestone.
We believe the Phoenicians came to America from the Old World 2,000 years before Columbus. These ancient seafarers brought with them their language and culture. Captain Philip Beale showed how the Phoenicians had the technology to cross the Atlantic. The proof of their presence in the New World is found cut in stone in the valleys of the Mississippi River.