Travel and Trade

Ship carving
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
Ship cog, for rigging
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).

Alma 63
4 And it came to pass that in the thirty and seventh year of the reign of the judges, there was a large company of men, even to the amount of five thousand and four hundred men, with their wives and their children, departed out of the land of Zarahemla into the land which was northward.
5 And it came to pass that Hagoth, he being an exceedingly curious man, therefore he went forth and built him an exceedingly large ship, on the borders of the land Bountiful, by the land Desolation, and launched it forth into the west sea, by the narrow neck which led into the land northward.
6 And behold, there were many of the Nephites who did enter therein and did sail forth with much provisions, and also many women and children; and they took their course northward. And thus ended the thirty and seventh year.
7 And in the thirty and eighth year, this man built other ships. And the first ship did also return, and many more people did enter into it; and they also took much provisions, and set out again to the land northward.

Fleet of ships
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
Single masted ship with oars.
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).

Helaman 3
3 And it came to pass in the forty and sixth, yea, there was much contention and many dissensions; in the which there were an exceedingly great many who departed out of the land of Zarahemla, and went forth unto the land northward to inherit the land.
4 And they did travel to an exceedingly great distance, insomuch that they came to large bodies of water and many rivers.
5 Yea, and even they did spread forth into all parts of the land, into whatever parts it had not been rendered desolate and without timber, because of the many inhabitants who had before inherited the land.
6 And now no part of the land was desolate, save it were for timber; but because of the greatness of the destruction of the people who had before inhabited the land it was called desolate.
7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell.
8 And it came to pass that they did multiply and spread, and did go forth from the land southward to the land northward, and did spread insomuch that they began to cover the face of the whole earth, from the sea south to the sea north, from the sea west to the sea east.
9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings.
10 And it came to pass as timber was exceedingly scarce in the land northward, they did send forth much by the way of shipping.
11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

High prowed ship depicting journey of 7 moons
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
Single masted ship with no oars
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
More Michigan Relics

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

.
These from Ted Bell collection.
Cogs and unknown effigy
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
Cogs/gears
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).
Cogs/gears
(Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

).

Jarom 1
8 And we multiplied exceedingly, and spread upon the face of the land, and became exceedingly rich in gold, and in silver, and in precious things, and in fine workmanship of wood, in buildings, and in machinery, and also in iron and copper, and brass and steel, making all manner of tools of every kind to till the ground, and weapons of war–yea, the sharp pointed arrow, and the quiver, and the dart, and the javelin, and all preparations for war.

This is a collection of silver and gold coins said to be from Burrows Cave. The authenticity of the artifacts is disputed

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

, however these coins match the system of coinage used by the Nephites as described in the Book of Mormon.
Coins from Michigan Etzenhouser Collection

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

. Not in very good shape and photo is poor but looks like three ezroms, two amnors, and four senines.

Alma 11
4 Now these are the names of the different pieces of their gold, and of their silver, according to their value. And the names are given by the Nephites, for they did not reckon after the manner of the Jews who were at Jerusalem; neither did they measure after the manner of the Jews; but they altered their reckoning and their measure, according to the minds and the circumstances of the people, in every generation, until the reign of the judges, they having been established by king Mosiah.
5 Now the reckoning is thus–a senine of gold, a seon of gold, a shum of gold, and a limnah of gold.
6 A senum of silver, an amnor of silver, an ezrom of silver, and an onti of silver.
7 A senum of silver was equal to a senine of gold, and either for a measure of barley, and also for a measure of every kind of grain.
8 Now the amount of a seon of gold was twice the value of a senine.
9 And a shum of gold was twice the value of a seon.
10 And a limnah of gold was the value of them all.
11 And an amnor of silver was as great as two senums.
12 And an ezrom of silver was as great as four senums.
13 And an onti was as great as them all.
14 Now this is the value of the lesser numbers of their reckoning–
15 A shiblon is half of a senum; therefore, a shiblon for half a measure of barley.
16 And a shiblum is a half of a shiblon.
17 And a leah is the half of a shiblum.
18 Now this is their number, according to their reckoning.
19 Now an antion of gold is equal to three shiblons.

This (Burrows Cave

*Both Michigan Relics and Burrow Cave artifacts are controversial. Some assume they are all forgeries and others believe many pieces are authentic. In the case of the Michigan relics there are many thousands (est. 20,000) of relics from hundreds of people found over many years (since 1865) and in different locations, but mostly in upper Michigan. For Burrows Cave there are fewer relics (est. 3,000 rock carvings and 4,000 tablets) and fewer people involved and just one, undisclosed location, Burrows Cave, located in Illinois. For background information, see the Michigan Relics and Burrows Cave and Burrows Cave Artifacts. See also, The Mystic Symbol: Mark of the Michigan Mound Builders and Henriette Mertz. There is proof that some of the Michigan Relics, especially from the "Soper-Savage" collection were faked by James Scotford. This is enough for some to declare that any and all relics pointing to ancient civilization in America are fake, by definition. This theory is unwarranted. Many of the best relics found have a provenance completely independent of James Scotford and his acquaintances. Therefore each of the 1000s of relics, especially those with writing on them, deserve unbiased consideration without prejudice or animus. In my opinion, many relics have already been shown to be authentic in multiple ways. No proven fake artifacts are presented on this site. Let additional research continue.

) artifact is a map-stone etched in rock of the Mississippi river system and is shown with a corresponding paper copy that someone has drawn out. I would date this map inscription prior to 280 BC on the basis of the Zarahemla region not yet being included. Various sections of river are marked with dots and dashes which may be an indication of distance. Distance in the Book of Mormon is always given in terms of how many days travel it is. If the dashes were days and the dots were weeks then that would be a pretty good indication of the travel times I think. In the ocean, at the mouth of the Mississippi/Sidon is a depiction of a ship that may indicate Lehi’s arrival, or some other. It is not distinct on the first map but more prominent on the second.

In red, I have identified the modern equivalents on the map-stone as follows:

  • G = Gulf of Mexico
  • M = Mississippi River
  • LP = Lake Pontchartrain. (note that the course of the Mississippi in Book of Mormon times was further west than it is today)
  • A = Arkansas River, leading to Pine Bluff and Little Rock Arkansas
  • P = Pearl River, leading to Jackson Mississippi
  • N = St. Louis, or Land of Nephi
  • MR = Missouri river going as far as Jefferson city.
  • I = Illinois River
  • D = DesPlains River
  • K = Kankakee River
  • O = Ohio River
  • W = Wabash River
  • S = Ship
The Keweenah Peninsula and Isle Royale have the largest deposits of float copper in the world.
Map of copper veins in Keweenah Peninsula.
The Isle Royale from the air. It is estimated that 750,000 tons of copper have been mined here over the last 5700 years.
Michigan “half-breed” copper includes veins of silver.
Michigan float copper from Keweenah Peninsula.
More Michigan float copper from Keweenah Peninsula. Ancient miners heated the rock, then rapidly cooled it with water to break it and extract the copper nodules.
Copper from the Keweenah Peninsula is about the 90% pure copper.
Largest float copper speciman ever found, from Keweenah Peninsula. Weighs 28 tons.
Map showing major iron ranges near Lake Superior and northern Michigan.
Iron Ore from Marquette Range in Upper Michigan.
Remains of an iron ax-head clay mold. Found in Ohio.
Magnetite iron ore from Michigan.
Concrete in America. Sample of concrete used to cap the mounds. Cement is the binding agent for the rocks and sand. The end result is concrete.
Pearls are frequently found in mounds and is an indication of far reaching trade contacts. The pearls in the fourth picture adorned a warriors breastplate.

2 Nephi
15 And I did teach my people to build buildings, and to work in all manner of wood, and of iron, and of copper, and of brass, and of steel, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious ores, which were in great abundance.

Jarom 1
8 And we multiplied exceedingly, and spread upon the face of the land, and became exceedingly rich in gold, and in silver, and in precious things, and in fine workmanship of wood, in buildings, and in machinery, and also in iron and copper, and brass and steel, making all manner of tools of every kind to till the ground, and weapons of war–yea, the sharp pointed arrow, and the quiver, and the dart, and the javelin, and all preparations for war.

Mosiah 11
3 And he laid a tax of one fifth part of all they possessed, a fifth part of their gold and of their silver, and a fifth part of their ziff, and of their copper, and of their brass and their iron; and a fifth part of their fatlings; and also a fifth part of all their grain.
8 And it came to pass that king Noah built many elegant and spacious buildings; and he ornamented them with fine work of wood, and of all manner of precious things, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of brass, and of ziff, and of copper;
10 And he also caused that his workmen should work all manner of fine work within the walls of the temple, of fine wood, and of copper, and of brass.

Ether 10
23 And they did work in all manner of ore, and they did make gold, and silver, and iron, and brass, and all manner of metals; and they did dig it out of the earth; wherefore, they did cast up mighty heaps of earth to get ore, of gold, and of silver, and of iron, and of copper. And they did work all manner of fine work.

Helaman 3
7 And there being but little timber upon the face of the land, nevertheless the people who went forth became exceedingly expert in the working of cement; therefore they did build houses of cement, in the which they did dwell. 9 And the people who were in the land northward did dwell in tents, and in houses of cement, and they did suffer whatsoever tree should spring up upon the face of the land that it should grow up, that in time they might have timber to build their houses, yea, their cities, and their temples, and their synagogues, and their sanctuaries, and all manner of their buildings. 11 And thus they did enable the people in the land northward that they might build many cities, both of wood and of cement.

4 Nephi 1
24 And now, in this two hundred and first year there began to be among them those who were lifted up in pride, such as the wearing of costly apparel, and all manner of fine pearls, and of the fine things of the world.

Medicinal Plants Growing at Zarahemla Temple Site: Monarda punctata, also known as Spotted Bee Balm.
Descendants of Native Americans returned to a place where their ancestors 16 centuries ago grew and harvested Spotted Bee Balm for the treatment of fevers and diseases, including malaria, which was the bane of the early latter-day saints in the area.

From John Lefgren, August 12, 2020

“During the last month, people have become aware of the health benefits from a plant that Dr. Kevin Price discovered six weeks ago growing on the Zarahemla Temple Site.”

“We have mounting evidence that this plant was cultivated more than 2,000 years ago by people who are found in the Book of Mormon. The plant is tied to a verse in the 46th chapter of the Book of Alma.”

“At the end of the Heartland Research Group Expedition during the first week of August 2020, volunteers harvested 13 pounds of fresh plant material directly from the center of the sand mound that is the foundation of the Zarahemla temple.”

Alma 46
40 And there were some who died with fevers, which at some seasons of the year were very frequent in the land–but not so much so with fevers, because of the excellent qualities of the many plants and roots which God had prepared to remove the cause of diseases, to which men were subject by the nature of the climate–


HRG History — by Jay Mackley
HISTORY AND MISSION STATEMENT OF THE

The Heartland Research Group is a grassroots, boots-on-the-ground organization that believes that the historical narrative of the Book of Mormon took place in the Heartland of North America. The HRG is active in archaeological research and in the acquisition, restoration and display of ancient American artifacts. The HRG is currently preparing an ancient ship replica called the "Phoenicia" for display. The ships construction design is patterned after a shipwreck dating to 600 BC. The Phoenicia ship made modern voyages, first around Africa and then also from the Middle East to Florida in 2019 – proving that voyages around Africa or from Sidon to North America were feasible anciently.

Heartland Research Inc is a 501c3 private operating foundation for archaeological research and to complete preparations for the Phoenicia display. Current plans are for a museum large enough to house the Phoenicia ship and many other ancient artifacts and exhibits from North America. The location of the museum is planned to be in Zarahemla which is Lee County Iowa, near the Mississippi river and east of Nauvoo, Illinois.

Our activities are too many to list, but some recent major expeditions are listed below. Many of these expeditions are open-ended and we expect to continue research in these and other similar activities as time, resources, and volunteers become available. We have dozens of volunteers and hundreds of donors, large and small, but we need many more. Check out the websites listed below for details of Heartland Research Group projects. Our current project is is our biggest yet: to refurbish the Phoenicia ship for display.


Go to the Donation Page


We invite you to support our efforts so we can complete these worthy goals!
If you have skills or knowledge to contribute to our research and discovery projects, please contact us directly to volunteer.


  • What: Sonar scanning of Mississippi between Nauvoo and Keokuk. The purpose of the expedition was to discover a crossing route that ancient people could have taken.
  • Who: Heartland Research Inc volunteers.
  • Where: Between Keokuk and Nauvoo, Iowa.
  • How: Private donations of money, time and equipment.

  • What: Magnetic scanning of 221 acres of farmland near Montrose, Iowa. The purpose of the expedition was the discovery of fire-pits and other evidence of ancient occupation.
  • Who: Members of the Heartland Research Inc, local farmers, volunteers, plus technicians from German company SYNSYS. Signs of habitation were found with magnetometery scanning and then C14 dating.
  • Where: Near Montrose Iowa and between Montrose and Fort Madison Iowa.
  • How: Large and small donations of money, time and equipment.

  • What: A one week seminar in Fort Madison, Iowa with 25+ participants. Included visits to the Putnam museum in Davenport, Iowa. There were twelve presentations on the ancient history and written languages of the upper Mississippi.
  • Who: Members of Heartland Research Inc plus presenters and interested attendees.
  • Where: Fort Madison, Iowa.
  • How: Private donations for space, time and lodging.

  • What: Ground penetrating electrical resistivity scanning for building foundations using electrical resistivity equipment from LandVisor.
  • Who: Members of Heartland Research Inc and volunteers.
  • Where: Zarahemla in Lee County, Iowa.
  • How: Private donations and ground support.

  • What: Metal analysis for alloy content. Ancient arrow and spearhead found in Wisconsin stream of cast bronze.
  • Who: Heartland Research Group
  • Where: Sample found in Wisconsin stream by scuba diver.
  • How: Private donations for lab analysis.

  • What: High resolution LiDAR scanning by supporter Air Data Solutions of 34,000 acres in Lee County, Iowa and also part of Illinois. The focus was to create high quality digital maps showing the terrain of the land, especially in the foothill areas where large earthworks are found. Discovery of 5-10 miles of ancient earthworks from LiDAR using QGIS and ArcGIS visualization software.
  • Who: Members of Heartland Research Inc plus AirData Solutions Inc.
  • Where: Lee County, Iowa and also part of Illinois, covering the much of Nauvoo.
  • How: Private donations for services, data processing, and analysis.

  • What: Commence process of restoring the world's oldest ship replica from 600BC, which has circumnavigated Africa and crossed the Atlantic ocean from the Middle East to America.
  • Who: Members of Heartland Research Inc plus volunteers.
  • Where: Lee County, Iowa between Montrose and Fort Madison.
  • How: Private donations for materials, space, and equipment plus donations in labor.

Mission Statement

The Heartland Research Group researches archaeological evidence of the ancient civilizations of America.
Heartland Research Group activities include:

  • Field Research
    Uses archeological techniques and scanning technologies to reveal the remains of ancient civilizations.
  • Ancient Artifacts
    Encourages and facilitate study of ancient North American artifacts, including tablets, tools, weapons, metal works, and other items.
  • Geography
    Research and develop maps, using scanning technologies and other means, to identify the locations and activities of ancient civilizations.
  • Linguistics
    Analyze and translate ancient writings found in North America, especially those relating to other civilizations world wide.
  • Preservation and Display
    Collect, restore, preserve, catalog and exhibit ancient artifacts and replicas, and make them readily available to researchers and viewable to the public.
  • Archaeology, Geology, and History
    Study and research into all aspects archaeology, geology, and history that shed light on ancient North American peoples and cultures.
  • Promotion and Support
    Raise awareness of our activities. Work directly with and support individuals and groups in activities that share our same goals.
The Heartland Research Group welcomes researchers and interested parties of all backgrounds to share their analysis and findings of ancient American heartland civilizations.

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